Zero Growth: a population in balance. Birth rate is equal to death rate, so there is no growth or decrease.
Natural Decrease (ND): the death rate exceeds the birth rate.
Exponential Growth: a pattern where the growth rate constantly increases – often shown as a J-Curve.
Birth Rate (BR): the number of babies born per 1,000 people per year.
Death Rate (DR): the number of deaths per 1,000 people per year.
Natural Change: the difference between birth rate and death rate, expressed as a percentage.
Natural Increase (NI): the birth rate exceeds the death rate.
Life Expectancy: the number of years a person is expected to live, usually taken from birth.
Asian ‘Tiger’: one of the four east Asian countries of Hong Kong, South Korea, Singapore and Taiwan, where manufacturing industry grew rapidly from the 1960s to the 1990s.
Newly Industrialising Countries (NIC): these include the Asian ‘tigers’ as well as other emerging industrial nations such as Malaysia, the Philippines and China.
Replacement Rate: a birth rate high enough for a generation to be the same size as the one before it.
Rural-to-urban Migration: moving home from a rural area to settle in a city.
Age Structure: the proportions of each age group in a population. This links closely to the stage a country has reached in the demographic transition model.
Gender Structure: the balance between males and females in a population. Small differences can tell us a great deal about a city or country.
Infant Mortality: the number of babies that die under a year of age, per 1,000 live births.
Child Mortality: the number of children that die under five years of age, per 1,000 live births.
Gross Domestic Product (GDP) per capita: the total value if goods and services produced by a country in one year divided by its total population. Foreign income is not included.
Literacy Rate: the percentage of adults in a country who can read and write sufficiently to function fully in work and society.
European Union (EU): a group of countries across Europe that work towards a single market, i.e. they trade as if they were one country, without any trade barriers.
Dependency Ratio: the balance between people who are independent (work and pay tax) and those who depend on them. Ideally, the fewer dependants, for each independent person, the better off economically a country is. Here is the formula (figures can be in numbers or percentages): number of dependent people divided by number of independent people multiplied by 100.
Push-Pull Factors: push factors are the negative aspects of a place that encourage people to move away. Pull factors are the attractions and opportunities of a place that encourage people to move there.
Migration: the movement of people from one permanent home to another, with the intention if staying at least a year. This move may be within a country (national migration) or between countries (international migration).
Destination: the country where a migrant settles.
Country of Origin: the country from which a migration starts.
Immigrant: someone entering a new country with the intention of living there.
Emigrant: someone leaving their country of residence to move to another country.
Economic Migrant: someone trying to improve their standard of living, who moves voluntarily.
Choropleth Map: a map where areas are shaded to show a range of figures. The higher categories are shown in darker colours and the colours get lighter as the figures reduce.
Changing Urban Environments
Urbanisation: a process where an increasing proportion of the population lives in towns and cities (and there is a reduction living in rural areas).
Rural-urban Migration: a process in which people move from the countryside to towns and cities.
Land Use: the type of buildings or other features that are found in the area, e.g. terraced housing, banks, industrial estates, roads, parks.
Function: the purpose of a particular area, e.g. for residential use, recreation or shopping.
Central Business District (CBD): the main shopping and service area in a city. The CBD is usually found in the middle of the city so that it is easily accessible.
Inner City: the area around the CBD – usually built before 1918 in the UK.
Outer City or Suburbs: the area on the edge of the city. Many suburbs were built after 1945 and get newer as they reach the edge of the city.
Household: a person living alone, or two or more people living at the same address, sharing a living room.
Brownfield Sites: land that has been built on before and is to be cleared and reused. These sites are often in the inner city.
Greenfield Sites: land that has not been built on before, usually in the countryside on the edge of the built-up area.
Urban Development Corporations (UDC): set up in the 1980s and 1990s using public funding to buy land and improve inner areas of cities, partly by attracting private investment.
City Challenge: a strategy in which local authorities had to design a scheme and submit s bid for funding, competing against other councils. They also had to become part of a partnership involving the local community and private companies who would fund part of the development.
Regeneration: improving an area.
Sustainable Community: community (offering housing, employment and recreation opportunities) that is broadly in balance with the environment and offers a good quality of life.
Quality Of Life: how good a person’s life is as measured by such things such as quality of housing and environment, access to education, health care, how secure people feel and how contented and satisfied they are with their lifestyle.
Park-and-ride Scheme: a bus service run to key places from car parks located on the edges of busy areas in order to reduce traffic flows and congestion in the city centre. Costs are low to encourage people to use the system – they are cheaper than fuel and car parking charges in the city centre.
Segregation: occurs when people of a particular ethnic group choose to live with others from the same ethnic group, separate from other groups.
Squatter Settlements: areas of cities (usually on the outskirts) that are built by people of any materials they can find on the land that does not belong to them. Such settlements have different names in different parts of the world (e.g. favela in Brazil) and are often known as shanty towns.
Informal Sector: that part of the economy where jobs are created by people to try to get an income (e.g. taking in washing, mending bicycles) and which are not recognised in official figures.
Self-help: sometimes known as assisted self-help (ASH), this is where local authorities help the squatter settlement residents to improve their homes by offering finance in the form of loans or grants and often installing water, sanitation, etc.
Site and Service: occur where land is divided into individual plots and water, sanitation, electricity and basic track layout are supplied before and building by residents begins.
Industrialisation: a process in which an increasing proportion of the population are unemployed in the manufacturing sector of the economy.
Disposal of Waste: safely getting rid of unwanted items such as solid waste.
Landfill: a means of disposing of waste by digging a large hole in the ground and lining it before filling it with rubbish.
Recycling: collection and subsequent reprocessing of products such as paper, aluminium cans, plastic containers and mobile phones, instead of throwing them away.
Air Pollution: putting harmful substances into the atmosphere such as carbon dioxide.
Transnational Corporations (TNCs): companies that spread their operations around the world in an attempt to reduce costs.
Water Pollution: putting poisonous substances into water courses such as sewage, industrial effluent and harmful chemicals.
Sustainable City: an urban area where residents have a way of life that will last a long time. The environment is not damaged and the economic and social fabric, due to local involvement, are able to stand the test of time.
Green Belt: land on the edge of the built-up area, where restrictions are placed on building to prevent the outward expansion of towns and cities and to protect the natural environment.
Urban Sprawl: the uncontrolled outward expansion of the built-up area of a town or city.
Sustainability: development that preserves future resources, standards of living and the needs of future generations.
Incineration: getting rid of waste by burning it on a large scale at selected sites.
The Development Gap
Infant Mortality: the number of babies (0-12 months) dying per 1000 births. There is an inverse relationship between the wealth of a country and its infant mortality.
GNI: Gross National Income – is a measure of a country’s wealth.
GNP: Gross National Product – is also a measure of wealth but does not take account of some business taxes.
Development Measure: statistics used to show the level of development, which allows countries to be compared.
Human Development Index (HDI): an index based on three variables: life expectancy at birth; level of education, including both literacy rate and years spent in school; income adjusted for purchasing power (how much will it buy). Maximum HDI = 1. Wealthy countries like Japan have an HDI of over 0.9, whereas poor countries are around half that figure or less.
Physical Quality Of Life Index (PQLI): the average of three social indicators: literacy rate, life expectancy and infant mortality.
Tariffs: government taxes on imported or exported goods.
Debt Relief: forgiving a debt in part or in total, i.e. writing it off.
Fair Trade: a system whereby agricultural producers in countries at lesser stages of development are paid a fair price for their produce. This helps them to attain a reasonable standard of living.
Short-term Aid: aid given to relieve a disaster situation, e.g. people who have been made homeless and are starving after a serious flood.
Long-term Aid: aid given over a significant period, which aims to promote economic development.
Donor Country: a country giving aid to another country.
Receiving Country: a country receiving aid from another country.
Bilateral Aid: aid given by one government to another. It may trade and business deals tied to the aid.
Multilateral Aid: countries at further stages of development give money to international organisations such as World Bank, the International Monetary Fund (IMF) or the United Nations (UN), which then redistribute it to the development projects in countries at lesser stages of development.
Top-down Aid: aid used so that governments can run more efficiently or to build infrastructure such as roads and bridges.
Bottom-up Aid: aid used to provide basic health care for communities, clean drinking water and money for education.
Economic Periphery: the edge of a country or region in terms of economics. It may not physically be the edge, but is a more remote, difficult area where people tend to be poorer and have fewer opportunities. A less well-developed area.
Economic Core: the centre of a country of region economically, where businesses thrive, people have opportunities and are relatively wealthy. A highly developed area.
Sustainable Development: this allows economic growth to occur, which can continue over a long period of time and will not harm the environment. It benefits people alive today but does not compromise future generations.